Day 3: Network Classifications, Uses and Standard Organizations


Hello Dear Students,
       Hope you all are doing good.

So, today's our topic is Network Classifications, Network Topologies and the uses of Networks.

Let's get started.....

Network- A network is a set of nodes which are connected by communication links. A node can be a computer, printer, or any other device which is capable of transmitting data generated by other nodes on the network. The most important network criteria are- Performance, Reliability, and Security.


Network Classifications-
  • Network Classification on the basis of scale-
            
   Inter-Processor Distance       Processors located               Example           
         0.1 m        Circuit Board  Data Flow Machines 
         1 m           System    Multi Computer
         10 m           Room             LAN
         100 m         Building            LAN
         1 km         Campus             LAN
         10 km            City             MAN 
         100 km         Country            WAN 
         1,000 km         Continent            WAN
        10,000 km           Planet          Internet


  • Network Classification on the basis of Geographical Span 
  • LAN- Local Area Network. LAN is usually privately owned network which links the devices in a single office, building, or campus. It's size is limited to few kilometers. Wireless LANs are the newest evolution in LAN technology. The error rate is low in LAN and the speed is high. The transmission medium in LAN are wires/guided media such as Coaxial cable or UTP. It operates on Broadcasting Principle. The internet working devices are- Hub, Repeater, Switch, Bridge. Example- Used to connect departments or college campus.
  • MAN-  Metropolitan Area Network. MAN is usually owned by the large organizations to inter-connect its various branches across a city. The size is between LAN and WAN. MAN is basically based on IEEE 802.6 standard known as DQDB(Distributed Queue Dual Bus). The transmission medium are Wires or Telephone lines. The error rate and the speed is moderate. It operates on both Broadcasting and Switching Principle. The internet working devices are- Router, Gateways. Example- Telephone service, Cable TV in city.
  • WAN- Wide Area Network. It is worldwide network basically that covers large geographical are(100 to 1,000 miles). It usually operates at bit rate from 1.5Mbps to 2.4Gbps and is publicly owned. The set up cost is very high and error rate is also high. The transmission mediums are PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network) or Satellites. It operates on Switching Principle. The internet working devices are- Router, Gateways. Example- Internet.

  • Network Classification on the basis of Relationship
  • Peer to Peer Networks- In this network, there is no master/controller or server. All the devices have same status and can share the link equally. This network is basically suitable for small networks having less than 10 computers on a single LAN.
  • Client-Server Networks- In this network, there is a central controller called Server. The server controls the network resources and provides services to it's clients(other computers in the network). The network resources however can be files, directories, applications and shared devices like printers, etc. The client requests the server for service, the server processes client's request and respond it accordingly.
  • Hybrid Networks- It is the combination of both peer-to-peer and client-server networks. It basically provides centralized services as well as allows the users to share and manage their own resources. It incorporates the best features with the Performance, Reliability, and Security.

Uses of Computer Networks- The computer network is our need of the hour. Following are some uses of computer networks-
  1. Sharing of Information at large geographical area in the form of Emails, Video-Conferencing, Chatting, News-Groups,and WWW.
  2. Sharing of Resources such as Hardware and Software resources. Where, Hardware resources are- Printers,FAX,Modems,CD-ROM,Drives,etc.and Software resources are- Accounting Software,etc.
  3. Facilitates Centralized Management.
  4. Ensures Backup Reliability.
  5. Reduces the Hardware and Software costs. 
  6. Better Performance.
  7. Communication speed is increased. 

Standards Organizations- The Standards provides guidelines to the service providers to ensure the kind of inter-connectivity in communication. Standards are developed through the standards creation committees, forums, Govt. regulatory agencies or institutes. Some are as follows-
  • ISO- International Organizations for Standardization. ISO is a multinational body whose membership is from the Standard creation committees of various Govts. throughout the world. The ISO is active in developing cooperation in scientific, technological, and economic activity.
  • ITU-T- International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standards Sector(ITU-T). This committee was devoted to the research and establishment of standards for telecommunications.
  • ANSI- American National Standards Institute. ANSI is completely private,non-profit organization, and not affiliated with the U.S. federal Govt. which is dedicating to support U.S. voluntary standards. It was founded on 19 October, 1918.
  • IEEE- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is the largest professional engineering society in the world. IEEE overseas the development and adoption of international standards for computing and communications.
  • EIA- Electronic Industries Association. It is a non-profit organization devoted to the promotion of electronic manufacturing. In the field of IT, EIA has made significant contributions by defining physical connection interfaces, and electronic signaling specifications for data communication.


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