Day 9(1): Mobile Communication

Hello Dear Students,
   Hope you all are doing good....

Today we are going to discuss about the mobile technology, mobile communication, CDMA, GSM, protocols, and many more-

Let's get started....

MOBILE COMMUNICATION - It is a wireless technology in which one can transmit the data of any type from the source to destination connected with a fixed physical link. The physical links may be under-ground or under-sea. The 2 cellular Standards are as follows-
  • GSM - GSM stands for Global System for Mobile communication. It is the standard system all over the world for the mobile technology/ mobile communication. GSM basically uses the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), in which the time is divided into the time slots for the conversations. During these time intervals/slots the data transmitted over phones. For knowing its customers and which network is used by them there is a SIM card for that, which contains all the information like network information, service subscription, etc. The SIM card is also used to assign the time slots. With the SIM card, one can change its network from one network to another by port the SIM card. 
SIM Card- SIM stands for Subscriber Identification Module. The SIM contains the information about network, subscription, address book, contact information, etc.

  • CDMA - CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access. This technology was developed by Allied Forces on World War 2 to prevent from jamming the signals. It allows more users at a time and allows full access to the bands and has greater communication capacity as compared to GSM. It encodes the user's conversations and the data is protected so that the person supposed to receive the data, can receive it. Phones on CDMA do not use SIM cards. Each phone in this network technology is built-in specially for some specified network and the network cannot be changed to another network. In CDMA, one channel carries all the transmissions simultaneously(at the same time). It is the PCS(Personal Communication Services) technology where there is fast transmission speed and low cost. 
However, newer technology like 3S is there where one can watch TV, Video Conferencing on cellular devices. The 5G is also there which is the 5th generation technology and mostly adopted by all large organizations. 


MOBILE INTERNET PROTOCOL(MIP) -  The IP ( Internet Protocol) is basically used as the identification of the network. The IP in mobile technology is the MIP(Mobile Internet Protocol), which is an IETF(Internet Engineering Task Force) standard communication protocol. It works on the network layer. IP-MM stands for IP-Mobility Management, which allows the mobile users to move to another network without changing IP address. 

Components of MIP
  1. Mobile Node- A device such as cell phone, laptop etc.
  2. Home Agent- A router on home network
  3. Foreign Agent- A router when it roams(roaming) to foreign network.
Phases of MIP-
  1. Agent Discovery- This is the 1st phase, where the mobile node discovers its home and foreign agents. It discovers the agent on the basis of location by ICMP routing. If location is local then home agent, otherwise foreign agent.
  2. Registration- This is the 2nd phase, where mobile node registers its location with home agent or foreign agent. 
  3. Tunneling- This is the 3rd phase, where a reciprocal tunnel is set up with mobile node for routing the packets. The method by which MIP receives data from the network is known as Tunneling.

MOBILE COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS - The mobile technology basically use the radio waves for communication. The protocols by which mobile communication is done are-
  • The mobile protocols uses Multiplexing for mobile communication.
  1. FDM(Frequency Division Multiplexing)- It is an analog technique which divides the frequency to each user. 
  2. TDM(Time Division Multiplexing)- The radio frequency is divided into multiple time slots to each user. Here multiple users can implement simultaneously.
  3. CDMA(Code division Multiplexing)- Users share same frequency simultaneously, here the data is protected and the receiver has the unique key to identify the individual calls.
  • WLL- WLL stands for Wireless in Local Loop. As the name suggests, it is used in homes or offices, where local excahnge is there and this is more secure than wired networks. The trnsmission is basically done through the Antennas. 
  • GPRS- GPRS stands for General packet Radio Services, which is a packet based wireless communication technology. It is based on the amount of data the user uses or transmits. GPRS protocol is used by 2G and 3G technologies. The speed is basically 56Kbps to 114Kbps. 


Best of Luck students,
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