Day 6: Addressing, IPv4, IPv6

Hello Dear Students,
      Hope you all doing good....

Today we are going to discuss about the addressing in the networking TC/IP

Let's get started....

Basically, addressing is used to specify a particular unique identification to a network/location. 4 levels of Addressing are used in TCP/IP protocols:

  • PHYSICAL ADDRESSES - It is also known as link address. It specifies the address of the nodes. It is the lowest-level addressing and is basically related with the Physical and Data-Link layers. However, it's size and the format varies over the network. Most LAN's uses 48-bit (6 bytes) physical address written as 12 hexadecimal digits. 
        Example- 07:02:06:01:2C:4B 

  • LOGICAL ADDRESSES - It is basically related with the Network layer and is used for universal communications. The different networks have different address. We use the term IP addresses for the logical addresses. An IP address defines a device's connection to a network. No 2 hosts have same IP and the IP is unique. 
        The physical address changes from hop-to-hop, but logical address usually remains same. 
           
       1. IPv4 - IPv4 stands for Internetworking Protocol version 4. It is currently used address which is basically a 32-bit address. It is unique and no 2 hosts have same address. IPv4 is universally accepted by all the hosts. IPv4 uses 32-bit address space i.e. 232, (4,294,967,296) more than 4 billion. If there is no restrictions, then more than 4 billion devices can be connect to the network.

         Binary Notation- 
         01110101   10010101  00011101  00000010

         Dotted-Decimal Notation-
          117.149.29.2  
         Each byte is 8-bit(octet), value ranging from 0-255.
The IPv4 has 2 parts(header and data) known as the datagrams. Header is 20-60 bytes. 
Classful Addressing Table(uses the concepts of classes and have 5 classes)- 

 Class 
No.of Blocks 
 Block SizeApplication 
   A 128 16,777,216         Unicast
   B 16,384 65,536 Unicast
   C 2,097,152      256 Unicast
   D 1 268,435,456 Multicast
   E 1 268,435,456 Reserved

Class A for large organizations, B for mid-size organizations, C for small organizations, D for multicasting and E were reserved for future use. However, in classful addressing, a large part of available addresses were wasted. 

         2. IPv6 - IPv6 stands for Internetworking Protocol version 6. It is also known as IPng(Internetworking Protocol next generation). It is basically 128-bit(2128) address and is not currently working but may dominant in future. The currently is IPv4. But due to some deficiencies in IPv4 like no encryption/authentication in IPv4 and no minimum delay strategies, etc. To overcome IPv6 is there which have following advantages -
  1. Larger Address Space. 128-bit long
  2. Better header format
  3. Additional functionalities
  4. Allow for extensions
  5. More Security.
The 3 strategies are stated by the IETF for the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. 
  1. Dual Stack
  2. Tunneling
  3. Header Translation
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                                                          prrevious year paper ugcnetexperts

  • PORT ADDRESSES - It is basically related with the Transport layer. In TCP/IP architecture, the label assigned to a process is known as Port Address which is 16-bits long. The 16-bit address is represented by 1 decimal number. It usually remains same and not changes from hop-to-hop. 
        753
        A 16-bit port address represented as one single number.



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